Citations

1

Murgier J., et al. "Microbial flora on cell-phones in an orthopedic surgery room before and after decontamination," Orthopedics, Traumatology, Surgery and Research, 102(8), (2016), pp. 1093-1096, doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2016.09.014. Available online at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p...

2

Independent Research.

3

Independent Survey of 400 Nurses.

4

Dumas, O., Varraso, R., Boggs, K., et al. “Association of Occupational Exposure to Disinfectants with Incidence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Among US Female Nurses,” JAMA Network Open 2(10), (2019), doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen, 2019, Available online at: https://jamanetwork.com/journa...

5

Balasko, M., Short, A., and Shakir, S., “Why medical equipment housings are cracking and how material selection can help prevent it,” Polyone Corporation, (2014), Available online at: https://kapost-files-prod.s3.a...

6

Sastri, V., Plastics in Medical Devices: Properties, Requirements and Applications, William Andrew Applied Science Publishers, Plastics Design Library, (2010), pp. 33-54.

7

Allen, V., "Wet wipes could take 100 years to break down: Products contain plastic that is 'virtually indestructible.'" The Daily Mail, (2016), Available online at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/ne...

8

Independent Research.

9

Independent Survey of 400 Clinicians.

10

Sundheim, G., Langsrud, S., Heir, E., et al. “Bacterial resistance to disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds.” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 41(3-4), (1998), pp. 235-239, doi: 10.1016/S0964-8305(98)00027-4.

11

Song, X., Vossebein L. and Zille, A., “Efficacy of disinfectant-impregnated wipes used for surface disinfection in hospitals: a review.” Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 8(139), (2019), doi: 10.1186/s13756-019-0595-2. 

12

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema,” National Center for Health Statistics, (2017), Available online at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fasta...

13

Sastri, V., Plastics in Medical Devices: Properties, Requirements and Applications, William Andrew Applied Science Publishers, Plastics Design Library, 2010, pp. 33-54.

14

Stone, P.W., “Economic Burden of Healthcare-Associated Infections: An American Perspective”, Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, 9(5), (2009),  pp. 417-422. Available online at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p...

15

“Microplastics,” Tox Town, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2019, Available online at: https://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/so...

16

AHA Resource Center, “Fast Facts on U.S. Hospitals,” American Hospital Association.

Independent research? 

17

Sastri, V., Plastics in Medical Devices: Properties, Requirements and Applications, William Andrew Applied Science Publishers, Plastics Design Library, 2010, pp. 33-54.

18

Health Quality Ontario, “Portable ultraviolet light surface-disinfecting devices for prevention of hospital-acquired infections: a health technology assessment,” Ontario Health Technology Assessment, 18(1), (2018), Available online at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p...

19

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Staphylococcus aureus in Healthcare Settings,”CDC Website, Updated January 2011.

20

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings,”CDC Website, Updated November 2019.

21

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),”CDC Website, Updated June 2019.

22

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance (AR/AMR),”CDC Website, Updated September 2018.

23

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in Healthcare Settings,”CDC Website, Updated November 2010.

24

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “General Information about Norovirus,”CDC Website, Updated December 2010.

25

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Norovirus in Healthcare Facilities Fact Sheet,”CDC Website, Updated September 2011.

26

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Flu Symptoms & Complications,”CDC Website, Updated September 2019.

27

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Adenoviruses,”CDC Website, Updated August 2019.

28

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Common Colds: Protect Yourself and Others,”CDC Website, Updated February 2019.

29

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Candida auris,”CDC Website, Updated November 2019.

30

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Candida auris: A Drug-resistant Germ That Spreads in Healthcare Facilities,”CDC Website, Updated December 2018.

31

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Clostridioides difficile Infection,”CDC Website, Updated November 2019.

32

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Tuberculosis (TB),”CDC Website, Updated September 2012.

33

Drira, I., Hadrich, I., Neji, S., et al., “Highly Discriminatory Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers for Genotyping of Trichophyton interdigitale Strains,”Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Updated June 2014.

34

The University of Adelaide, “Trichophyton,”Mycology Online, Updated December 2016.

35

Estimate based on extrapolation of calculated average consumption per bed.

36

Ramm, L., Siani, H. and Wesgate R., "Pathogen transfer and high variability in pathogen removal by detergent wipes," American Journal of Infection Control, 43(7), (2015), pp. 724-728. Available at: https://www.mendeley.com/catal...

37

Naaber, P., Stsepetova, J., Smidt, I., et al., "Quantification of Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-associated-diarrhea patients," US National Library of Medicine, 49(10), (2011), Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p...

38

Patient safety and Quality Healthcare, "Once Again, Safety Issues Top List of Most-Cited TJC Standards," (2019), Available at: https://www.psqh.com/news/once...

39

California Department of Public Health, Environmental Cleaning: Role of Environmental Surfaces," (2017), Available at:  https://www.cdph.ca.gov/Progra...

40

Kramer, A., Schwebke, I., & Kampf, G., "How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review," (2006) BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 6., Available at: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2...

41

Business Insider, "The Wuhan coronavirus has killed 18 people and infected more than 630," January 22, 2020, Available at:

https://www.businessinsider.co...